Published: 17 March, 2022 | Volume 6 - Issue 1 | Pages: 026-029
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is defined as an abrupt decrease in kidney function within hours to days and is caused by multiple factors. Community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI) is common in developing countries, and it is crucial to bring awareness about its epidemiology and simple preventive strategies that can tackle this potentially serious complication. Infections, use of over-the-counter medicines, traditional herbal remedies, animal (and insect) bites, and pregnancy-related complications are common causes of CA-AKI in developing countries. The incidence of vector-borne disease-related AKI and obstetric causes of AKI have decreased following better public health policies in most developing countries. Appropriate fluid management is critical in AKI, both in terms of prevention of development and progression of AKI. Timely initiation and de-escalation of fluid therapy are both equally important. Kidney replacement therapy (KRT) is indicated when AKI progresses to stage 3 and/or patients develop refractory fluid overload or electrolyte imbalances and/or uremic complications. Hemodialysis is the most common modality of KRT in adults, whereas peritoneal dialysis is the dominant modality in small children. Convective renal replacement therapy, such as hemofiltration, is increasingly used in critically sick patients with AKI and hemodynamic instability. To summarize, CA-AKI is a common, serious, and often preventable complication of certain conditions acquired in the community, and is, therefore, a matter of utmost concern from the public health perspective.